Rumors week of 3-9-22
Stephen Rhind-Tutt’s Coherent Digital’s Policy Commons editors have selected 21 important documents for studying the background of the conflict in Ukraine, including Vladimir Putin’s essay “On the historical unity of Russians and Ukranians” which is no longer available on the Kremlin website. It’s open to all at https://lnkd.in/dgmiDKG4
And here is a list of freely available books from CEU Press:
Writing in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution this month, 17 researchers from nine countries proposed a global library of underwater biological sounds to catalog, study, and map the sounds made by every underwater creature. The library, appropriately dubbed “GLUBS,” would collect underwater sounds from acoustic experts and citizen scientists to help researchers track what’s going on in changing marine ecosystems. Science sat down with lead author Miles Parsons, a marine biologist who studies underwater sounds at the Australian Institute of Marine Science, to talk about why and how scientists are listening in on the ocean.
Here is a snippet from a different kind of interview:
Q: Why does the world need such a library?
A: We’re not the first to suggest this—it is something that a lot of researchers have thought about, and some other libraries already exist for marine fauna. But they tend to be regionally focused or focused only on certain groups of animals. Biodiversity is decreasing or changing rapidly in some places, and marine fauna are changing their distributions and behaviors in response to environmental and manmade pressures.
Q: What would the library include?
A: First, [it would have] a reference library, full of known sounds and their sources as well as unknown sounds that need to be identified. It would also include a data portal for researchers to upload their own recordings of individual sounds or “soundscapes,” [that is] the whole audio environment for a location. There would be maps tracking species distribution based on sound recordings, and then there would be a training database for artificial intelligence [AI] detection algorithms.
Q: How do you collect sounds underwater? I imagine you can’t just stick an iPhone down there.
A: Sound researchers use hydrophones [underwater microphones] that have a battery pack. You can put [them] on a mooring sitting on the sea floor or attach [them] to a buoy or a glider for shallow depths down to 200 meters. Once you start getting down into trenches, you end up with hydrophones that are encased in glass spheres—it all gets very technical to cope with the pressures. You program them to record, maybe continuously, or you might want them to record for 5 minutes of every 15 minutes, which is what I tend to do. With the battery pack, it will record for 6 to 12 months. GoPros and new, low-cost hydrophones … are useful for collecting acoustic data, though they don’t perform at the highest scientific level.